Annotated Bibliography

• Christgau, John. Enemies: World War II Alien Internment: Lincoln, NE, University of Nebraska, 2001.
o In this book, Christgau focused on the fates of various Germans and German-Americans during the Second World War. Christgau follows the stories of several people of German descent interned in the U.S. during the war. He presents the argument that many of them were interned for being of direct German ancestry. The author describes the conditions in places like Fort Lincoln, North Dakota, where both German and Japanese-Americans were interned during the war. To support his claims, the author uses a mix of personal memoirs of one of the guards of the camps as well as official documents, letters, and documents provided by the INS. As well as documents provided by the National Parks Service, the FBI with their voluminous documents on the Alien Enemy Case Files. Christgau sought to bring to light one of the less talked about groups that were interned during the Second World War.

• Issel, Willem. For Both Cross and Flag: Catholic Action, Anti-Catholicism, and National Security Politics in World War II San Francisco: Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 2010.
o Willem Issel focuses on the story of Sylvester Andriano, who was an Italian-American catholic civil rights leader in the 40’s. During the war, he was arrested after the House on Un-American Activities Commission held him on suspicion of holding Fascist sympathies. This book focuses more on the anti-Catholic sentiments in the U.S. in the early 20th century and the racial issues of being Italian-American.

• Jenkins, Phillips. The Invisible Black shirts in Hoods and Shirts: The Extreme Right in Pennsylvania, 1925-1950:Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1997
o This book, focuses on the rise of Fascist ideology Americans before, during, and after the war. The book in general is about the creation of far-right movements like the Klu Klux Klan, the American Fascist party, and neo-nazism in the state of Pennsylvania. These groups continued their growth in the U.S. practically un-obstructed, likely due to its anti-communist ideas, until the American entry into World War II. One chapter describes the connections between Italian American Fascists and Mussolini’s government and the subsequent FBI investigations into such things. Besides that, the chapter also brings up the bitter topic of non-fascists in the U.S., sometimes even Senators, applauding the Mussolini regime. This is reflective of the quick change in ideas on the Italian government in between 1929 and 1942.

• Krammer, Arnold Undue Process: The Untold Story of America’s German Alien Internees. Published Lanham, Maryland, Rowman and Littlefield publishers, 1997.
o This book seeks to illuminate the history of the internment of German-Americans in the U.S. The various tactics used were meant to not only root out those deemed to be spies by the U.S., but to also discourage disloyalty amongst German-Americans. The author also subtly hints that, amongst other reasons, the German Americans were not all moved into internment camps is because too many of them were prominent Americans and because there were too many of them.

• Carnevale, Nancy C., “Language, Italian American Identity, and the Limits of Cultural Pluralism in the World War II Years” in A New Language, A New World: Italian Immigrants in the United States, 1890-1945. Edited by Jon Gjerde and Ruiz, Vicki L. Chicago, IL, University of Illinois Press.
o This book focuses on the Italian culture in America during the Second World War. It starts by bringing up how Italian and Italian-American music was still popular in 1940, even after Italy entered the war on the side of the Nazi’s. However, the FBI under J. Edgar Hoover began marking down the names of Italian American celebrities who chose to use Italian in their lyrics. The mere act of speaking Italian had now become a suspicion for the FBI, and the U.S was not even at war yet. At the same time, the OSS was recruiting Italian Americans to go back to Fascist Italy and work as American spies. The book covers the problems faced by the Italian-Americans in struggling to preserve their identity and prove their patriotism at the same time. Such things would prove difficult as most forms of Italian culture in the U.S. would be strictly monitored by the FBI and the INS.

• Diamond, Sander A., The Nazi Movement in the United States 1924-194. London, Cornell University Press, 1974.
o This book focuses on the rise of the Nazi party in the United States, specifically under the leadership of the notorious Fritz Julius Kuhn. Kuhn is described as being “Hitler’s imitator in America,” in that he was a German American who tried to push the ideas of the Amerikadeutscher Volksbund, commonly referred to as the “bund.” The author asserts that this movement was seen as a plot by Hitler at undermining the U.S. and its democracy, and detested the ideas of National-Socialism as they were “un-American.” This simultaneously brings evidence of both the extent of the popularity of the German-American bund in the U.S., as well as the opinions on it being that it did not conform to the idea of what was American. Rather than portraying the U.S. as being amicable towards Germany, he gives the ideas that the U.S. had been keeping an eye on its German populace to see if any of them were German conspirators.

• Canedy, Susan. America’s Nazis: A Democratic Dilemma: A History of the German-American Bund. Menlo Park, CA, Markgaf Publications group, 1990.
o Canedy traces the beginnings of the Bund movement to then end of World War I. As the Americans joined the war on the side of the Entente, German-Americans had to face a grim reality. They could no longer see themselves as German, but they still wanted to support the country they came from. Once the war was over, Germany was in grave debts and German-Americans had been subject to investigations on their loyalty to the U.S. She creates the image of a German-American who sees themselves as being neither, but instead says that they represent the old Germany and its state after being twisted by both war and social conflict. It was from this that the bund was formed, as a method of trying to hold onto what was left of Germany. Later, it would become both a tool of the Nazi party and a place where paranoid German-Americans could discuss their fears.

• Fox, Stephen. Uncivil Liberties: Italian Americans under Siege during World War II. Mickeysgod publications, 2000.
o Stephen Fox seeks to uncover the various implementations of the internment programs during World War Two, specifically the internment of Italian and German Americans in California. He utilizes oral histories from guards and prisoners from these camps to help build the history of the internment programs. This book not only includes accounts on the internment of German and Italian Americans, but also their exclusion, including the forced relocation and appropriation of property.

• Thompson, Antonio. Men in German Uniforms: POWs in America during World War II. Knoxville, University of Tennessee Press, 2010.
o In this book, Thompson describes the placement and labor of German prisoners of war during World War II in prison camps in the United States. The narrative presented by Thompson suggests that not everyone in the American POW camps was a German. Though they wore German Uniforms, there were many non-Germans who were impressed into service. Amongst the prisoners in some of the camps were not only Nazi’s, but soldiers from Vichy France, Fascist Italy, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, and Poland.

• Billinger, Robert D. Hitler’s Soldiers in the Sunshine State. Gainesville, University Press of Florida, 2000.
o This book covers the existence of German POW camps in the state of Florida. The author explains that, until the 1970’s, most historians focused on the logistics and strategy of World War Two. Here, the author tells the story of German military prisoners brought over to the U.S. and how the existence of the camps went under reported. However, not every prisoner in these camps was German, or even a Nazi, as is explained later in the book. All of them wore German uniforms, but not all of them swore allegiance to Germany.

• Waters, Michael R. Lone Star Stalag: German Prisoners of War at Camp Hearne. College Station, Texas A&M University Press, 2004.
o This book focuses on Camp Hearne, a POW camp set up in Texas to hold Wehrmacht POWs. Waters describes the practices for the largest POW camp in the mainland United States by using government documents left over by the Department of War, the FBI, and the accounts of the former guards at the camp. The prisoners in the camp were sent there as early as 1943, so their ranks included men from the North Afrika Korps, the SS, and various other groups of German soldiers. This book looks at the general practices of the camp and the treatment of its prisoners, rather than looking at the inter-prison racially and national disputes.

• Russel, Jan J. The Train to Crystal City: FDR’s Secret Prisoner Exchange Program and America’s Only Family Internment Camp during World War II. Scribner Press, 2015
o This book focuses on the internment of Italian, German, and Japanese Americans in Crystal City, Texas. It served as a “family camp”, as in it held entire families of immigrants from Axis countries. They were brought in by INS, and many had their property seized by the State department. It is worth noting that, amongst the many internees at Crystal City, there were some who had been arrested in Latin America. They had been extradited to the U.S., even though they were not in the U.S. by any means.